The water used is decisive for the success or failure of your Triops breeding. If you are a hobby breeder at the very beginning and have no or very little experience in breeding primeval crayfish, you should familiarise yourself with the subject of aquaristics and aquarium technology in general. Some budding breeders use the wrong water out of ignorance and are surprised that no Triops hatch. Can you simply use tap water for breeding? Should I use rainwater or river water? Which water is the right one for Triops is not rocket science and can be learned by everyone. Nevertheless, you should deal with the subject in detail so that there are no unpleasant surprises during the first breeding and, in the worst case, no nauplii hatch. This article tells you which water is best to use for Triops.
Which water for Triops?: Tips for beginners
Let’s assume you are at the very beginning, have no experience and want to start your first breeding. Now you ask yourself: Which water should I use for Triops? My answer:
I had the best experience with this in the beginning and can recommend this mixing ratio to you. Especially in the beginning, you don’t want to do anything wrong and you don’t have any room for experimenting with other types of water such as rainwater or river water. You can always try this out later. At this point we want you to have as safe and hatchable a start as possible in breeding primeval crayfish. Distilled water is freed from trace elements, ions and other impurities that otherwise occur in groundwater or spring water. This makes the water very soft and makes it easier for the Triops to hatch.
But be careful, never use distilled water alone. As there are no microorganisms and nutrients in this pure water, this would mean the certain death of your nauplii. Still mineral water is the perfect complement. This is very hard compared to distilled water, but the mixture balances it out very well. The still mineral water provides the nauplii with the necessary nutrients and complements the distilled water perfectly. A little tip on the side: you don’t have to buy the expensive branded water, the cheapest from the supermarket is the optimal water for Triops. Now you know which water you should use for Triops as a beginner.
Which water for Triops?: Tips for advanced users
After you have successfully mastered your first breedings, you can experiment a little with the water and gain new experiences. River, rain or lake water can be used here. Water from a stream or a pond can also be used, as long as it is not contaminated. These types of water have a high proportion of nutrients, suspended algae and microorganisms and offer ideal values for your nauplii. But be careful here too, the high organic load can cause the water to tip over and your nauplii to fall ill. In the worst case, the Triops will die.
As you can see, the water quality can deteriorate if there are too many nutrients in it. For this reason, you should be careful with river or lake water. To purify the water, you can run it through a coffee filter. If you use rainwater or lake water, other water inhabitants such as snails, caddisfly larvae or dragonfly larvae may settle in. These are very difficult to remove from the aquarium and will attack the Triops. A few snails are fine and useful, but they must not become a nuisance. Experiment a little and find the perfect mixing ratio for your Triops breeding.
Make sure that you do not change the water in the rearing tank during the first week after hatching. During this time the weak nauplii need rest. From the second week onwards, you can gradually add some fresh water every two days. After two weeks, one large water change per week is necessary. Here you change a maximum of 30 percent of the water in the tank.
Which water should I use for Triops? Is tap water suitable for breeding? Only to a limited extent. Tap water should not be used as a priority. It flows through pipes where pollutants such as copper can dissolve. If there is copper in the water, this means certain death for your primeval crayfish. You can only use tap water if your primeval crayfish are at least two weeks old and you can be absolutely sure that the water does not contain any pollutants such as copper.
Another option is osmosis water. Osmosis water is water that has been softened and demineralised in a reverse osmosis system. In such a process, the source water is purified and strongly softened with the help of filtration through pure filters and activated carbon. However, pure osmosis water alone is not suitable as water for Triops. It should be used to soften the aquarium water. The osmosis water can be mixed with distilled water or tap water in a new or already acclimatised aquarium.
→ More information can be found in the main article: Osmosis water
Water values: acidity and pH value
Besides the question of which water to use for Triops as a breeder, the question of the optimal water values is at least as important. Here we look at the pH value. Like all other aquatic inhabitants, Triops can only survive in a certain pH range. Along with temperature and total hardness, acidity is one of the most important water values in an aquarium. On a scale from 0 to 14, the pH value indicates the acidity of the water. Water with a pH value of 0 is strongly acidic, while a pH value of 14 is strongly alkaline water. The pH value of seven describes a neutral water value where the water is neither acidic nor alkaline. Drinkable tap water usually has a pH value around seven.
For Triops breeding it is important to know that the pH range of 0 to 4.5 and 9 to 14 is extremely hostile to life. Most fish require slightly acidic or neutral water values with a pH between six and seven. However, the Triops is a very robust species, also in terms of adapting to pH values. The ideal value is a pH of six to seven, although values of 4.5 to 8.5 are tolerated. The ideal water for Triops should be in this range.
Important: Triops will not hatch from eggs with a pH value of 8.9 or higher.
→ More information can be found in the main article: Water values
The nitrogen compound nitrate (NO3) occurs in every aquarium. Nitrate represents the last link in the degradation chain of nitrification in the nitrogen cycle and, in contrast to nitrite (NO2), is much less dangerous for the aquarium inhabitants. In a functioning ecosystem, the nitrogen cycle serves to decompose and transform organic loads. The bacteria transform ammonium into nitrite and then nitrite into nitrate. Nitrate (NO3) is the end product of the nitrification chain and is a natural fertiliser. Too much nitrate in the aquarium leads to an algae problem.
→ More information can be found in the main article: These consequences of too much nitrate (NO3) in the aquarium
Nitrite in an aquarium is always poisonous for the aquarium inhabitants. Nitrite (NO2) will not have any harmful consequences for an aquarium that is not yet stocked and in the start-up phase. Even a nitrite peak is not yet a problem in this early phase. As soon as the first Triops have moved into the tank, too much nitrite is highly toxic. Countermeasures must be taken to avoid nitrite poisoning and death of the animals. As a breeder, you have put a lot of work, love and time into breeding Triops, so you will not wish for this terrible scenario.
→ More information can be found in the main article: For these reasons nitrite (NO2) is harmful in the aquarium